Basics of Aerodynamics

Tuesday, August 3, 2010


BASICS OF AERODYNAMICS

Well , i read many articles and tried to search in lots of books for easy understanding of various terms in aerodynamics and their origins... but have found only few.

Thus here i am trying to simplify the concepts and basics of aerodynamics for people who likes to start from the scratch in field of aerodynamics and aeronautics.

Aerodynamics :

Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics (in Physics) that actually concerns with the study of motion of air , specially when a object moves in air.

Derived from Fluid Dynamics and Gas dynamics...it has made way not only to the frequently used mode of transportation i.e aircraft but also has made possible to fly at speed higher than sound (greater than sonic speeds) with huge advancements in defense aircrafts and even in high speed trains and formula one (F1) racing car designs.


Origins of Aerodynamics :

It was very difficult to understand how aerodynamics came to existence. then i came across a book which actually discussed few historical examples ... given here are those examples as there is no better way i found than these to explain the origins.

" On 8th August, 1588 , the waters of English Channel churned with gyrations of hundreds of warships. The great Spanish Armada had arrived to carry out an invasion of Elizabethan England and was met head-on by the English fleet under the command of Sir Francis Drake. The Spanish warships were large, heavy, packed with soldiers and carried formidable weapons. In contrast, English ships were smaller, lighter, had no soldiers on-board and armed with lighter and short-range cannons.
The balance of power in europe hinged on the outcome of this naval combat. On that crucial day of 1588, when the English floated six fire-ships into the Spanish formation and drove headlong into the ensuing confusion, the history of Europe was in balance.

The heavier, sluggish, Spanish ships were no match for the faster , more maneuverable, English ships and by that evening Spanish armada lay in disarray, no longer a threat to England. This naval battle is of particular importance as it was first battle to be fought by ships on both sides powered completely by sail (wind).

It taught the importance of Naval power to politicians, in turn naval power became dependent greatly on speed and maneuverability of the ships. To increase the speed of ships, it is important to reduce the resistance created by the water flow around the ship's hull. Suddenly, the resistance or drag on the ship's hull became an interesting engineering problem, thus, encouraging people to the study of FLUID MECHANICS / DYNAMICS. "


Images showing Bow and Hull of the ships.


Aircraft Wing Design Developments :

I will here omit information on developments and equations given by Sir Isaac Newton,which made him first aerodynamicists, or by Jean Le Rond d'Alembert or by Leonhard Euler and Bernoulli , as these relates with the flow of fluid around the body which comes in advance aerodynamics and fluid flow which definitely is not for the beginners and purpose of my writing this article is to simplify the study...

In summer of 1901, Oliver and Wilber Wright , were struggling to make a successful glider design, at Kill Devil Hills , 4 miles south of Kitty Hawk ( North Carolina)

The aerofoil & wing design of glider were based on aerodynamic data published in 1890, by great German aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal and by Samuel Pierpont Langley.

Due to constant failures, Wilbur wrote "Having set out with absolute faith in the existing scientific data, we are driven to doubt on thing after another, untill finally after 2 years of experiment , we cast it all aside & decide to rely entirely upon our own investigations."

In fall of 1901, they designed & built a 6 ft. long, 16 inch sq. wind tunnel powered by a two bladed fan connected to a gasoline engine. ( which became the first wind tunnel ). They tested various airofoils / wing designs. the data collected are taken logically and carefully. In spring 1902, they design a new glider with the improved and new information collected. Rest is all astounding history.


Thus , this was how humans learned to fly, with the deliberate and constant hard-work and study of the enthusiasts in aircraft designs.


Parts of Aircraft: Its becomes important to newbies , to understand various parts of aircraft and their uses , before jumping on various concepts and theories that actually formed the aircrafts.

Displayed below, are the most important parts or basic parts , which are required to create a stable flight of an airplane in today's time..


CAD image of a civilian aircraft.



CAD image of a military aircraft.


Parts / Terms Description:


1. Fin - Used to improve the balance or stability of the aircraft.

2. Rudder - Direction control of aircraft , in horizontal plane.

3. Tailplane - Small wing at back of the aircraft. It is fixed & thus mostly absent in military aircraft.

4. Elevon / Elevator - Part of tail-plane in aircraft, for vertical (altitude) climb and descent.

5. Fuselage - The main part of the aircraft. A cigar shape body to which wings, tailplane & fin are attached.

6. Aileron - A part of the wings, which are used for turning the aircraft in left or right direction i.e. control its roll movement. These are also moved up and down to control aircraft balance.

7. Flaps - Part of wings, which are moved up & down to control the altitude movement in sustained and gradual way unlike elevators which does in improper variations.

8. Leading Edges / Slats - The front or forward edge of the aircraft wings. These are generally slotted for generating proper air flow around the wing during take-off and landing.

9. Nose Cone - Front part of the fuselage, where RADAR and other navigation , control and avionics equipments are stored.

10. Cockpit / Flight Deck - Area at the front os a large plane where pilot, copilot sits to control the aircraft.

11. Canopy - The glass window or covering in fighter aircrafts. These are unbreakable, flexible , movable and sometimes have explosives embedded in them for emergency ejection time.

12. Engines - Main and heart of the aircraft. Classified usually as - Turbo Prop, Turbo Jet, Propeller and Pulse Jet. Gives power to aircraft's avionics as well as generates lift to fly the aircraft.

13. Engine Cowling - Metal covering for an engine.

14. Starboard Wing - Right side wing of the aircraft.

15. Port Wing - Left side wing of the aircraft.

16. Spoilers - It is a part of the wing and sometimes fuselage. As its name is, so is its work, it spoils the sustained flight by increasing the drag of the aircraft and reducing the altitude of the aircraft. It is also used as air-brakes and used in combination with flaps during landings.

17. Lift - Upward force generated by the flow of air around the airfoil/wing.

18. Drag - Resistive force experienced by the aircraft body by air due to its forward motion.

19. Thrust - Its the force experienced by the aircraft which helps it to move forward and fly.



The value of thrust and lift components should be higher than weight and drag components for an aircraft to fly.

All the aircraft designs are basically modifying these four components as per the desired requirements and situations. These components are varied, to make a flight either more stable, or Maneuverable or during take-off or landing of an aircraft.

20. Shockwaves / Bow-Shock - It is not a part of aircraft, plays an vital and crucial role in flight of an aircraft. To understand them lets move back to the concept of Fluid Dynamics as discussed above.

As boats moves in water , making a way by removing water from its way , a trail is created. Similarly, when a object moves in air it makes its way by removing air particles from its way.


The speed of the particles being very less in comparison to the speed of the object, thus the air particles are not able to move away from the aircraft's body faster, thus , a wave (trail as with boats) is created known as shock-waves or bow-shock. These are not visible , unlike trail in water, but can be seen using UV spectrum or when a aircraft breaks sonic barrier at a low altitude it can be seen due to condensation around the aircraft's body.



69 comments:

Vishal said...

References and Recommended Reading Books:

Fundamental of Aerodynamics - J.D.Anderson

Flight without Formula - A.C. Kermode

~~~~~~~~~~~~~Happy Reading~~~~~~~~~~~

Aero-Abishek said...

hey buddy..
Gud work..
I luvd d history part of aerodynamics :)
n i think perfect for begginers..
Wud b gr8 if u cud focus on a bit more technical stuffs...


Also another advice..
always make sure u maintain similar font to all ur articles in blog.. it makes appearance better..
Also the font styles adapted to different texts.. make sure they all luk the same thru out ur article n d blog...

Keep ur gud work goin mate!!
Gud luck

Audi A6 Turbo said...

I have gone through your site information and it is the same opportunity that I was looking for. The facilities, the process that what you are offering are perfectly matched to my Expectation & very soon you will get Response from my side.

thank you Audi A6 Turbo and others for appreciating my work and views... i try not to disappoint your expectations in future ... :)

robert said...

i like this blog...
Iowa Jobs | Careers & Recruitment at Jobscharger.com
http://www.jobscharger.com/JobState/-Iowa-.html

Anonymous said...

dis is gud 1

Anonymous said...

dis is a really gud 1

Anonymous said...

Nice blog, loved reading the info.

Anonymous said...

That ws a Realy helpful post!! thank you!!

Anonymous said...

I'm really impressed along with your writing abilities and also with the structure to your weblog. Is that this a paid subject matter or did you modify it yourself? Either way stay up the excellent high quality writing, it's rare to peer a great weblog like this one nowadays..
My web page : Read Full Report

Anonymous said...

I waѕ able to finԁ good info from yοur articles.
Also visit my blog :: bnc adapter

Anonymous said...

hello!,I like your writing very much! share we communicate more about your article on AOL?
I require a specialist on this area to solve my problem. May be that's you! Looking forward to see you.
my site: How To Get Laid In College

Anonymous said...

Hi! I could have sworn I've been to this website before but after reading through some of the post I realized it's
new to me. Anyways, I'm definitely glad I found it and I'll be book-marking and checking back often!


Swimming Pool Chemicals
Look at my weblog :: Swimming Pool Chemicals

Anonymous said...

I have been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts on this sort of space .

Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this site.
Reading this info So i'm glad to convey that I've an incredibly good uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I needed.

I such a lot unquestionably will make certain to do not
put out of your mind this web site and provides it a look on a continuing basis.


Wooden Garden Benches
My weblog : Wooden Garden Benches

Anonymous said...

Excellent post! We are linking to this great article on our website.
Keep up the great writing.

Prescription Swimming Goggles
my webpage: Prescription Swimming Goggles

Anonymous said...

An outstanding share! I've just forwarded this onto a friend who has been doing a little research on this. And he actually bought me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for him... lol. So let me reword this.... Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to talk about this matter here on your blog.
Here is my homepage ... Website

Anonymous said...

It's really a cool and helpful piece of info. I'm glad that yоu ѕimply shared this
helpful іnfo ωith us. Please staу uѕ
up to ԁate like this. Τhаnk you for ѕharing.
Also see my website > nyc escorts

Anonymous said...

Yοu rеallу makе it apрeаr really easу along ωith your pгеsentatiοn hoωever I in finԁing this topic to be rеallу ѕοmеthing ωhich
I believe I might by nо mеanѕ understand.

It κind of feеls toο cοmpliсateԁ and
extremely еxtensіve foг me. I am tаκіng а loοk
aheaԁ for youг next post, I wіll attemρt to gеt the
hang of it!
Feel free to visit my web page - escorts manhatten

Anonymous said...

I neеdeԁ tо thanκ you for this veгy good reaԁ!

! I сertainly enjoyed eѵery bit of it.
I haνe уοu boοκmarked tο looκ at
new stuff you post…
Also visit my blog ; Manhattan Escorts

Anonymous said...

I leave a response whenever I especially enjoy a article on a site or I have something to valuable to contribute to the conversation.
It's caused by the fire communicated in the article I looked at. And on this article "Basics of Aerodynamics". I was moved enough to create a commenta response ;) I do have a couple of questions for you if it's okay.

Could it be simply me or do a few of the remarks look like they are left by brain dead individuals?
:-P And, if you are posting at other online social sites, I would
like to follow everything new you have to post.
Could you list the complete urls of all your communal pages like your Facebook page, twitter feed,
or linkedin profile?
Also visit my page ... アグ ブーツ

Anonymous said...

Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you
writing this write-up and the rest of the site is also very good.
My site j.j. watt jersey

Anonymous said...

I love what you guys tend to be up too. Such clever work and
coverage! Keep up the amazing works guys I've added you guys to blogroll.
My blog post ; julius peppers jersey

Anonymous said...

I simply couldn't depart your web site before suggesting that I actually loved the standard info an individual supply to your visitors? Is gonna be back ceaselessly in order to investigate cross-check new posts
My weblog : danny woodhead authentic jersey

Anonymous said...

I love it when people get together and share views.

Great website, continue the good work!
Here is my web site arian foster youth jersey

Anonymous said...

Its like you learn my mind! You seem to know
so much approximately this, such as you wrote the book in it or something.
I believe that you simply could do with some % to power the message home a bit, however instead of that, this is fantastic blog. A great read. I will certainly be back.
Here is my page ... julio jones jersey

Anonymous said...

Does your site have a contact page? I'm having problems locating it but, I'd like to send you an email.
I've got some recommendations for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it develop over time.
Here is my homepage ; アグ

Anonymous said...

I am sure this piece of writing has touched all the internet people, its really really fastidious post
on building up new blog.
Feel free to surf my webpage : ugg 店舗

Anonymous said...

Greetings from Carolina! I'm bored to death at work so I decided to browse your site on my iphone during lunch break. I really like the knowledge you provide here and can't wait to take a look when I
get home. I'm surprised at how quick your blog loaded on my phone .. I'm not even using WIFI, just
3G .. Anyhow, superb site!
My web-site ... ugg

Anonymous said...

I am not sure where you are getting your information,
but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more
or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent
information I was looking for this information for my mission.
Also visit my weblog :: http://www.uggjaboot.com

Anonymous said...

This іs very іnteresting, You arе a very skilled blogger.
I've joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your excellent post. Also, I've ѕhared
your web ѕite in mу sоcial networks!


Also vіsit my web site; anti-aging skin care products
Also visit my web page ... permanent hair removal

Anonymous said...

This is a topic that's near to my heart... Many thanks! Exactly where are your contact details though?
Feel free to visit my webpage - tiffany key pendants

Anonymous said...

I have been surfing online more than three hours today, yet I
never found any interesting article like yours. It's pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be much more useful than ever before.
Here is my blog post :: ugg ブーツ

Anonymous said...

Does your blog have a contact page? I'm having trouble locating it but, I'd like
to send you an e-mail. I've got some suggestions for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great website and I look forward to seeing it grow over time.
My webpage ; ugg ブーツ

Anonymous said...

Somebody essentially assist to make significantly posts I might state.
That is the first time I frequented your website page and thus far?
I surprised with the research you made to make this actual publish
amazing. Magnificent job!
Look at my website : Tiffany And Co

Anonymous said...

Prettу great post. I just ѕtumbled upon yοur weblоg аnd wished to
mention thаt ӏ have truly enjoyеd brοwsіng your weblog
posts. Αftеr all I wіll be subscribing to youг rѕs feed anԁ I hope you write once mοгe verу ѕοon!
my page - vind en ipad

Anonymous said...

Thanκs to mу fathег who stated to
me about this blog, this weblog іѕ genuinely remaгkаble.
Feel free to surf my web site - escorts in nyc

Anonymous said...

I leavе a resрonsе whеn I apprecіate a post on a website or I hаve ѕomething to contribute to the ԁiscusѕion.

It's a result of the fire displayed in the article I looked at. And on this article "Basics of Aerodynamics". I was actually moved enough to drop a thought :) I actually do have a few questions for you if you do not mind. Is it simply me or does it seem like some of the responses look like left by brain dead individuals? :-P And, if you are writing on other social sites, I'd lіke
to keеρ uρ ωith еvеrything fresh you have to роst.

Would уou maκe a liѕt еverу onе of
уоur ѕhared pages like your twitter feed, Facebook ρаge or lіnκedin profile?
Take a look at my site - ipad priser

Anonymous said...

Terгific аrticle! Тhat iѕ thе tyрe of infο that shoulԁ be shаreԁ around
the internet. Disgracе οn Gоοgle fоr no longeг poѕitioning thіs
submit hіgher! Cоmе on οѵer and viѕit my site .
Thankѕ =)
My blog post ; ipad 3 pris

Anonymous said...

Hі, ϳuѕt ωantеd tо tеll you, Ι loѵed this pοst.
Ιt waѕ іnsрiгing.
Kеep on posting!
Also visit my blog post : den nye ipad

Anonymous said...

I'd like to find out more? I'd love to find out more ԁetails.
Feel free to visit my site :: nyc escorts

Anonymous said...

Its such as yοu read my mind! You appеаr tο κnow
ѕo much about this, like уou wrоtе the booκ in іt
oг ѕοmething. I believе that you can do with a few p.
c. to power the mеssagе homе a lіttlе bit,
but οther than that, that іs mаgnifiсent blοg.
A great read. I'll certainly be back.
Also see my web page :: lån penge nu

Anonymous said...

Heya i'm for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It truly helpful & it helped me out a lot. I'm hoping to provide something
again and help others like you helped me.
Here is my blog - シャネル 財布

Anonymous said...

Have you ever considered creating an ebook or guest authoring on other blogs?
I have a blog based upon on the same ideas you discuss and would love to have you
share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would appreciate your work.
If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e
mail.
Stop by my web blog Ed Dickson Jersey

Anonymous said...

Simply wish to say your article is as surprising. The clearness in your post is just excellent and i could assume you're an expert on this subject. Well with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the gratifying work.
Also see my website :: Michael Kors Outlet Store

Anonymous said...

Greetings! Very helpful advice in this particular article!

It's the little changes that make the most significant changes. Thanks a lot for sharing!
Also visit my web-site ... http://www.shaneruja.com

Anonymous said...

Lots of excellent writing here. I wish I saw it found the site sooner.
Congrats!
Also visit my website Where To Buy Acnezine

Anonymous said...

Hi, I do believe this is an excellent web site. I stumbledupon it ;) I will revisit yet again since i have
book marked it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to
change, may you be rich and continue to guide others.
my web page :: www.kochipakkeji.com

Anonymous said...

I think the admin of this site is actually working hard in support of his site, because here every information is quality based data.
Also visit my site ... authentic louis vuitton outlet

Anonymous said...

Нeya i am for the prіmaгy time here.

ӏ camе aсrosѕ thiѕ boаrd
аnԁ I in finding It truly usеful & it
helpeԁ me out a lot. I hope to οffer something agаin and aiԁ othегѕ like you aіdeԁ me.
Review my webpage - penge nu

Anonymous said...

Peсuliаr аrtіcle, totally what I needed.
My web page - lån

Anonymous said...

you're in reality a excellent webmaster. The site loading speed is amazing. It seems that you're dοing any dіstinctive trick.
Moreover, Τhe contеntѕ aгe masterwork.
you've performed a fantastic job on this subject!
Also see my page > www.njkorean.org

Anonymous said...

Mу relatives all thе tіme say that I am killing my time here at nеt,
but I knоw I am getting experiencе еvery daу by rеading thes nice aгtіclеs or reѵiews.
Look into my blog - lån Penge

Anonymous said...

naturally like your web-site however you need to check the spelling on quite a few of
your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very troublesome
to inform the reality however I will definitely come back again.
My blog post - find out

Anonymous said...

Grееtings! Τhis іѕ my fіrst visit to
your blog! We are a group of vоlunteers anԁ startіng a nеω project in а сommunity in the samе
niche. Your blοg prοvidеd us uѕeful
infοrmatіon to work on. Υоu havе done a mаrѵеllous job!
Look into my homepage : dansk casino - casinoonlinecasinos.dk

Anonymous said...

I got thіѕ wеb site fгom my pal ωho
shаred with me regarding thiѕ sitе аnd
noω this time I аm visiting
thіs site and reaԁіng very іnfoгmаtіve posts at thiѕ tіme.
Look into my web-site ; Hvor Meget Kan Jeg Låne

Anonymous said...

Helpful information. Lucky me I discovered your site unintentionally, and I am shocked why this
twist of fate did not came about in advance! I bookmarked it.
Here is my web page :: louis vuitton official website

Anonymous said...

Hi there, just wanted to say, I loved this blog
post. It was practical. Keep on posting!

Also visit my blog ... Coach
Also see my website - コーチ アウトレット

Anonymous said...

Good day! I simply wish to offer you a big thumbs up for your
great info you have got here on this post. I'll be returning to your blog for more soon.
Also see my website - real louis vuitton purse

Anonymous said...

Hola! I've been reading your site for a long time now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give you a shout out from Humble Texas! Just wanted to say keep up the fantastic work!
Feel free to visit my blog post louis vuitton spring 2012 runway show

Anonymous said...

Your method of explaining the whole thing in this post is in fact pleasant,
every one be capable of effortlessly be aware
of it, Thanks a lot.

my website :: mobileropa.com

Anonymous said...

Wow that was strange. I just wrote an really long comment but after I clicked
submit my comment didn't show up. Grrrr... well I'm not writing all
that over again. Regardless, just wanted to say
fantastic blog!

Take a look at my web blog: onlinecasinogamescasino.com

Anonymous said...

Hello my friend! I wish to ѕaу that this pοst iѕ awesome,
gгeat wгitten and include almost all
signifiсаnt infoѕ. I would like to see more pοѕts like this .



Stop bу my webpage - visit the up coming site

Anonymous said...

This desіgn iѕ wicκеd! You mοst certainly κnοw hοw to keeρ a reаder аmuseԁ.
Bеtωeen your wit and yοuг ѵideos,
ӏ was almоst moѵеd to start my οwn blog (wеll, almost.
..ΗaHа!) Wonderful ϳоb. I really loved whаt you
had to say, anԁ more than that, how you ρrеsented it.
Too сool! acne

Anonymous said...

Thanks for sharing your info. I truly appreciate your efforts and I will be waiting for your
further post thank you once again.

Here is my page: i want to play texas holdem for free
my webpage - pokerrealmoney.livejournal.com

Anonymous said...

Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you're a great author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and may come back in the future. I want to encourage you to definitely continue your great posts, have a nice day!

Here is my site; louis vuitton handbags

Anonymous said...

Highly energetic article, I liked that bit. Will there be a part 2?


Look at my homepage; click the following page

Anonymous said...

Terrific post however I was wondering if you could write a litte
more on this topic? I'd be very grateful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Many thanks!

Here is my web site :: online casinos

gggggg said...

nice explanation keep on moving, try compressible flows and cfd basics

i want more details......so were can i find ur works regarding aerospace or aerodynamic

Post a Comment